Italian hallmarking

Hallmarking in Italy

Hallmarking in Italy:

Before 1870 Italy was a diverse group of kingdoms, duchies and city states. The land was ruled in absentia by France, Austria, Spain and the Vatican. The marks on precious metals up until 1872 were as diverse and as complex as the politics and the power struggles of the ruling classes.

With the conquest of Rome in 1870 and the end of Stato Pontificio (Papal State), Italy attained its unity. Also an unique system of hallmarking was introduced in the Regno d'Italia (Kingdom of Italy). The law of May 1872 deregulated the silver production and introduced a not compulsory inspection of silver artifacts.

Italian hallmarking - silver, gold hallmarks Italy
In the past Italian silversmiths rarely submitted their pieces to the optional official hallmarking. Silver pieces were usually only marked with the '800' (purity degree 800/1000), sometimes coupled with the silversmith's hallmark. The '800' was an unofficial mark and there was no uniformity in its shape. The law of February 1934 number 305 introduced uniformity in the shape of silversmith's marks. The new mark identifying the silversmith consisted of a lozenge containing:

  • Number: corresponding to the number identifying the silversmith
  • 'Fascio': fascist party symbol
  • Two letters: initials of the Province

The lozenge was coupled to an oval containing the purity degree 800 or 925 per thousand.

The Law of October 1944 with the number 313 ordered the elimination of the 'fascio' (symbol of 'fascism') maintaining into the lozenge only the number (identification of the silversmith) and the 2 initials of the Province. The availability of new lozenges was not immediate and for a short period of time the old marks with the obliterated 'fascio' were maintained.

The Laws January 1968 and December 1970 number 1496 introduced new hallmarks for silver and precious metals. The mark was modified to a polygonal shape and a star was added on the left. Numbers and Province letter were maintained. Purity degree 925, 835 and 800 per thousand were allowed and inscribed into an oval outlined mark. This system is still in use in present days.

Since 1968, every piece manufactured in Italy must have at least 2 hallmarks, this is regulated by a special Italian law: the metal title and the manufacturer one.

The metal title:

Italian hallmarking - precious metals hallmarks Italy

The example above is valid and obligatory starting from 30th of january 1968, (law n. 46), of course you can find them even in pieces manufactured before but at that time some hallmarks title like “18 KT” or “14 KT” were present as well.

The manufacturer hallmark:
Every piece must be connected with the manufacturer for checking the title congruity. The law is very severe and a tolerance of only 1/000 is allowed.

Example of a manufacturer hallmark

Italian hallmarking - precious metals hallmarks Italy

The star stands for the Italian republic symbol, this is followed by a progressive number and the province name where the factory is located.

Italian hallmarking - precious metals hallmarks Italy

Only the province name of ROME is fully displayed in Italian hallmarks. Other provinces will only have 2 letters, for example: Milan (MI), Naples (NA), Florence (FI), Parma (PA), Rimini (RN), etc.

The above is valid for Italy and EU only. If a finished product is manufactured in Italy for the export market to a non EU country, the identification hallmark is not obligatory. Article 25, decree of the president of the Italian republic number 150 of the 30th of May 2002.

In most European countries, including France and Great Britain, an item is not legal for sale without a hallmark. Germany doesn’t have hallmarking, but it’s the exception. A few countries, like Austria and Norway, have optional hallmarking. Italy doesn’t require hallmarking but it has better registration of the maker, a specific number, so what you see as an Italian mark was placed there by the maker. It’s a little more formal than any other maker’s voluntary marking.

The practice of hallmarking is being adopted at an increasing rate across the world. A clear example of this is the increasing size of the members of the International Convention on Hallmarks which has expanded from 7 when it began in the 1970s to 19 today. Italy has just applied to join.

The International Association of Assay Offices has also seen a similar expansion. Many of the new members originate from outside of Europe, reflecting the global nature of the jewellery trade. India, the largest democracy in the world, is in the process of introducing a hallmarking regime, as is Pakistan.

More interesting and useful historic information, including silver, gold and platinum marks can be found on our low priced antique silver, gold and platinum e-books collection on cd.

This cd contains over 35 digitised antiques silver, gold and platinum books.


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Over 40 antique silver, gold and platinum books digitized on a low-priced cd. All books are in easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader .PDF format.

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Interesting subjects on the CD:

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, finenes marks
  • Various standards of gold and silver
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconces, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum
  • Assaying of silver, gold
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks
  • Celebrated European Coldsmiths
  • Old English silver and plate
  • Oriental silverwork - Malay, Japanese, Chinese
  • History of English goldsmiths
  • Church (plate) silver
  • Alloys of gold and silver
  • The hallmarking of jewellery
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom
  • Manufacturers
  • Hallmarks for jewellery
  • Historic silver and gold objects
  • Plate, Pewter, Brittanica silver
  • And much more....

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40+ Digitized out of print antique books about precious metals - silver, gold, platinum from the 19th and early 20th century. Distribution via download links.

Over 40 antique silver, gold and platinum e-books in one low-priced collection. More than 10.000 pages of knowledge. All antique books are in an easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader PDF format. You can zoom in and zoom out on the text and the silver and gold marks.

This collection of antique books about precious metals contains of rare, sometimes privately published and out-of-print reference books, research manuals and museum works. Many of the antiques books were printed in the late 1800's and 1900's in limited quantities for museums and private collectors, making them almost impossible to purchase by the average person. On the used books market these works are rare, hard to find and therefore very expensive.

 

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What are these "precious metals" books about?

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, fineness marks;
  • Various standards of gold and silver;
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconce's, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, Jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc.;
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum;
  • Assaying of silver, gold;
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks;
  • Celebrated European goldsmiths;
  • Old English silver and plate;
  • Oriental silver work - Malay, Japanese, Chinese;
  • History of English goldsmiths;
  • Church (plate) silver;
  • Alloys of gold and silver;
  • The hallmarking of jewellery;
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom;
  • Manufacturers;
  • Hallmarks for jewellery;
  • Historic silver and gold objects;
  • Plate, Pewter, Britannica silver;
  • And much more....

  • Assay-office-letters-silver-gold.jpgLondon-hallmarks-silver-gold.jpg

    Makers-marks-English-silver-gold.jpgOld-silver.jpg

This collection of precious metals books can be easily downloaded via 3 download links. The download links will be provided after your payment has been received.

This collection of silver, gold and platinum books is also available on cd. No shipping costs worldwide.

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This DVD bundle contains two antiques book collections with more than 70 digitised antiques books:

  • Over 40 antique silver, gold and platinum books.
  • Over 30 antique porcelain and pottery books.

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All books on this data DVD are in easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader .PDF format and zoomable.

The "Precious metals" book collection gives you answers on almost everything you would like to know about the precious metals silver and gold.

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, finenes marks
  • Various standards of gold and silver
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconces, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum
  • Assaying of silver, gold
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks
  • Celebrated European Coldsmiths
  • Old English silver and plate
  • Oriental silverwork - Malay, Japanese, Chinese
  • History of English goldsmiths
  • Church (plate) silver
  • Alloys of gold and silver
  • The hallmarking of jewellery
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom
  • Manufacturers
  • Hallmarks for jewellery
  • Historic silver and gold objects
  • Plate, Pewter, Brittanica silver
  • And much more....

The "Pottery and Porcelain" book collection gives you answers on almost everything you would like to know about porcelain and pottery arts.

  • Terms used by dealers and collectors with their meanings.
  • The history of pottery from the earliest times.
  • Ancient pottery, Mediaeval and Renanaissance, Italian Majolica, French Porcelain and pottery,
  • German stoneware, Dutch pottery, Staffordshire pottery,
  • Oriental and European pottery,
  • History of important porcelain and pottery factories.
  • The difference between pottery and porcelain.
  • Notes and descriptions of various counterfeit and misleading marks.

This DVD also contains thousands of pottery and porcelain marks, makers' marks, factory marks.

 

Attention: You need a DVD player on your computer and the program Adobe Acrobat reader to read the PDF files.

 

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Product no.: PM-PP-JW-DVD

This DVD bundle contains three antiques book collections with approx. 95 digitised antiques books:

  • 40+ digitized antique books from the 19th and early 20th century about  precious metals, silver, gold and platinum.
  • 25+ digitized antique books from the 19th and early 20th century about jewellery and precious stones.
  • 30+ digitized antique books from the 19th and early 20th century about porcelain and pottery.

Furniture_books_English_table_French_furniture_Dutch_furniture_Antique_book_online.jpg
Porcelain_pottery_marks_old_books_German_porcelain_Meissen_China_online.jpg
 

All books on this data DVD are in easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader .PDF format and zoomable.

The "Precious metals" book collection gives you answers on almost everything that was known about precious metals in the 19th and early 20th century:

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, finenes marks
  • Various standards of gold and silver
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconces, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum
  • Assaying of silver, gold
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks
  • Celebrated European Coldsmiths
  • Old English silver and plate
  • Oriental silverwork - Malay, Japanese, Chinese
  • History of English goldsmiths
  • Church (plate) silver
  • Alloys of gold and silver
  • The hallmarking of jewellery
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom
  • Manufacturers
  • Hallmarks for jewellery
  • Historic silver and gold objects
  • Plate, Pewter, Brittanica silver
  • And much more....

The "Pottery and Porcelain" antique book collection gives you answers on almost everything that was known about porcelain and pottery arts in the 19th and early 20th century.

  • Terms used by dealers and collectors with their meanings.
  • The history of pottery from the earliest times.
  • Ancient pottery, Mediaeval and Renanaissance, Italian Majolica, French Porcelain and pottery,
  • German stoneware, Dutch pottery, Staffordshire pottery,
  • Oriental and European pottery,
  • History of important porcelain and pottery factories.
  • The difference between pottery and porcelain.
  • Notes and descriptions of various counterfeit and misleading marks.

This DVD also contains thousands of pottery and porcelain marks, makers' marks, factory marks.

 

The "Jewellery" antique book collection contains out-of-print books from the 19th and early 20th century:

  • The magic of jewels and charms.
  • How to make jewelry - practical instructions from a practical manufacturing jeweler.
  • Notes on some of the antique and renaissance Gems and Jewels in her majesty collection at windsor castle
  • Precious Stones - a book of reference for jewellers.
  • 20th Century Catalogue of Supplies for Watchmakers Jewelers and kindred trades
  • An encyclopedia for the Horologist, Jeweler, Gold and Silversmith
  • Diamonds - Precious stones for jewellers and gem-loving public
  • A Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls in which their importance is considered and plain rules are exhibited for ascertaining the value of both; and the true method of manufacturing diamonds.
  • Treatise on gems in reference to their practical and scientific value - A useful guide for the jeweller, lapidary, artist, amateur, mineralogist, and chemist, accomanied by a description of the most interesting American gems, and ornamental and architectural materials.
  • Catalogue of the jewellery Greek, Etruscan and Roman in the departments of Antiquities British Museum
  • Catalogue of the mediaval, ivories, enamels, jewellery, gems and mscellaneous objects bequeathed to the museum by Frank McClean
  • Catalogue of the valuable collection of Old English and Foreign Silver and Silver-gilt plate, Jewels, Bijouterie and Object of Vertu, Old Italian and French Bronzes, Majoliea, Limoges, Enamels,C collection of Venetian and German Glass Old Swiss Stained Glass, ox-Wood Carvings, and a variety of other objects of Art chiefly of the 16th and 17th Centuries.
  • Chats on old jewellery and trinkets
  • English Jewellery
  • The Jeweler's handbook containing practical methodes for galvanizing, electro plating and coloring with gold, silver and copper on all kinds of metals.
  • Jewellers' silversmiths' and kindred traders' accounts for manufacturing jewellers, wholesale jewellers, retail jewellers, diamond merchants, silversmiths, electro platers, gilders, watch manufacturers.
  • Jewellery
  • Useful alloys and memoranda for goldsmiths, jewellers, etc - A private handbook
  • The Science of Gems, Jewels, Coins and Medals - Ancient and modern - Watches, Diamonds, Jewellery and Silverware
  • Etc. etc.........

Attention: You need a DVD player on your computer and the program Adobe Acrobat reader to read the PDF files.

 

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