Swedish hallmarking

Hallmarking in Sweden

Hallmarking in Sweden

Hallmarking in Sweden

Sweden adopted early a unique marking system enabling identification of the maker if a piece, the city and the year of production.

Starting in 1485, all silver and gold pieces were required to have a master mark. It was decreed that gold- and silversmiths should "put their makers' mark on whatsoever they made.

The principle of the city mark was introduced in 1596. " Duke Karl IX in 1596 proclaimed that along with their marks, smiths should imprint the insignia of their city arms on each piece.

Silversmiths appear to have used a sort of trademark during the 16th century, but from about 1600, two or more initials were included in the mark, often in a monogram.

During the 18th century it was common for silversmiths to use a larger mark on which the entire surname appeared. And in addition a smaller stamp with two or three initials. Sometimes the surname was shortened to one or two letters.

In 1689 they were also ordered to include year mark or date letter. This decree to mark silver properly was intended solely as guarantee of purity of metal. In 1689 the Stockholm masters began to mark their works with an A, 1690 was indicated with B, and so on.

Later, year marks were introduced in many cities, but since all began with A, there were several different systems. When the entire alphabet A-Z had been exhausted after twenty-four years, it was decided to begin again with A, either in a different letter or in the same type. Thus a common A (Roman capital) together with a Gothenburg city mark can mean 1693, 1717, or 1741. On the other hand, the Stockholm trade used the alphabet A-Z (Roman capitals) from 1689 to 1712, cursive letters A-Z from 1713 to 1736, and a-z (small Gothic letters) from 1737 to 1758. In 1759 a system was introduced for the whole country. It consists of letters and numerals and is still in use

A fourth control of the fineness of the silver was the so-called alderman's mark, a zigzag line left by him when he scraped away a small quantity of metal to test for purity. Since pieces which did not come up to standard were scrapped, the alderman's mark became a guaranty of quality.

In 1754 the state took over, and the old mark was replaced with a new National control mark: the Swedish coat of arms with the three crowns. The decree is dated December 7, 1752, but did not go into effect until the beginning of 1754. The three-crowns mark can therefore appear only on pieces manufactured in 1754 or thereafter, or on articles made shortly before this date but not sold when the decree went into effect, whereupon they were recontrolled. Such recontrolled articles are sometimes marked with the St. Erik's head, whether they were made in Stockholm or elsewhere.

About 1860 the old city marks were replaced by the initial of the city. Different cities with the same initial letter are distinguished by the formation of the letter and the contour of the mark. Stockholm has, however, retained the St. Erik's head. Several towns and municipalities also have their own city marks.

Example of Swedish city marks:

Sweden_City_town_marks_26.jpg

Since the middle of the 18th century, control marks have appeared on gold, by carat or 24-parts, and occasionally on silver, by the half-ounce or 16-parts. The most common purity of silver has been about 13 lod (1 lod = 1/2 ounce), corresponding to 813 0/00, or a little more.

More interesting and useful historic information, including Swedish silver, gold and platinum marks can be found on our low priced antique silver, gold and platinum e-books collection on cd.

This cd contains over 40 digitised antiques silver, gold and platinum books.


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Product no.: Hallmarking Sweden

This digital book contains:

  • Swedish date marks 1759 - 2022.
  • Swedish locality marks (place of manufacture marks).
  • Timeline history Swedish precious metals.

This e-book will be send as a PDF file via e-mail.

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Product no.: PM-CD

Over 40 antique silver, gold and platinum books digitized on a low-priced cd. All books are in easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader .PDF format.

Precious_metals_books_-_Silver,_Gold,_Platinum_marks_hallmarks.jpg

Interesting subjects on the CD:

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, finenes marks
  • Various standards of gold and silver
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconces, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum
  • Assaying of silver, gold
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks
  • Celebrated European Coldsmiths
  • Old English silver and plate
  • Oriental silverwork - Malay, Japanese, Chinese
  • History of English goldsmiths
  • Church (plate) silver
  • Alloys of gold and silver
  • The hallmarking of jewellery
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom
  • Manufacturers
  • Hallmarks for jewellery
  • Historic silver and gold objects
  • Plate, Pewter, Brittanica silver
  • And much more....

Assay-office-letters-silver-gold.jpgLondon-hallmarks-silver-gold.jpg

Makers-marks-English-silver-gold.jpgOld-silver.jpg

 

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Product no.: PM-DWNL

40+ Digitized out of print antique books about precious metals - silver, gold, platinum from the 19th and early 20th century. Distribution via download links.

Over 40 antique silver, gold and platinum e-books in one low-priced collection. More than 10.000 pages of knowledge. All antique books are in an easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader PDF format. You can zoom in and zoom out on the text and the silver and gold marks.

This collection of antique books about precious metals contains of rare, sometimes privately published and out-of-print reference books, research manuals and museum works. Many of the antiques books were printed in the late 1800's and 1900's in limited quantities for museums and private collectors, making them almost impossible to purchase by the average person. On the used books market these works are rare, hard to find and therefore very expensive.

 

Precious_metals_books_-_Silver,_Gold,_Platinum_marks_hallmarks.jpg

Precious_metals_books_-_Silver,_Gold,_Platinum_marks_hallmarks.jpg

What are these "precious metals" books about?

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, fineness marks;
  • Various standards of gold and silver;
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconce's, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, Jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc.;
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum;
  • Assaying of silver, gold;
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks;
  • Celebrated European goldsmiths;
  • Old English silver and plate;
  • Oriental silver work - Malay, Japanese, Chinese;
  • History of English goldsmiths;
  • Church (plate) silver;
  • Alloys of gold and silver;
  • The hallmarking of jewellery;
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom;
  • Manufacturers;
  • Hallmarks for jewellery;
  • Historic silver and gold objects;
  • Plate, Pewter, Britannica silver;
  • And much more....

  • Assay-office-letters-silver-gold.jpgLondon-hallmarks-silver-gold.jpg

    Makers-marks-English-silver-gold.jpgOld-silver.jpg

This collection of precious metals books can be easily downloaded via 3 download links. The download links will be provided after your payment has been received.

This collection of silver, gold and platinum books is also available on cd. No shipping costs worldwide.

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Product no.: PM-PP-DVD

This DVD bundle contains two antiques book collections with more than 70 digitised antiques books:

  • Over 40 antique silver, gold and platinum books.
  • Over 30 antique porcelain and pottery books.

Furniture_books_English_table_French_furniture_Dutch_furniture_Antique_book_online.jpg
Porcelain_pottery_marks_old_books_German_porcelain_Meissen_China_online.jpg
 

All books on this data DVD are in easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader .PDF format and zoomable.

The "Precious metals" book collection gives you answers on almost everything you would like to know about the precious metals silver and gold.

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, finenes marks
  • Various standards of gold and silver
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconces, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum
  • Assaying of silver, gold
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks
  • Celebrated European Coldsmiths
  • Old English silver and plate
  • Oriental silverwork - Malay, Japanese, Chinese
  • History of English goldsmiths
  • Church (plate) silver
  • Alloys of gold and silver
  • The hallmarking of jewellery
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom
  • Manufacturers
  • Hallmarks for jewellery
  • Historic silver and gold objects
  • Plate, Pewter, Brittanica silver
  • And much more....

The "Pottery and Porcelain" book collection gives you answers on almost everything you would like to know about porcelain and pottery arts.

  • Terms used by dealers and collectors with their meanings.
  • The history of pottery from the earliest times.
  • Ancient pottery, Mediaeval and Renanaissance, Italian Majolica, French Porcelain and pottery,
  • German stoneware, Dutch pottery, Staffordshire pottery,
  • Oriental and European pottery,
  • History of important porcelain and pottery factories.
  • The difference between pottery and porcelain.
  • Notes and descriptions of various counterfeit and misleading marks.

This DVD also contains thousands of pottery and porcelain marks, makers' marks, factory marks.

 

Attention: You need a DVD player on your computer and the program Adobe Acrobat reader to read the PDF files.

 

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Product no.: PM-PP-JW-DVD

This DVD bundle contains three antiques book collections with approx. 95 digitised antiques books:

  • 40+ digitized antique books from the 19th and early 20th century about  precious metals, silver, gold and platinum.
  • 25+ digitized antique books from the 19th and early 20th century about jewellery and precious stones.
  • 30+ digitized antique books from the 19th and early 20th century about porcelain and pottery.

Furniture_books_English_table_French_furniture_Dutch_furniture_Antique_book_online.jpg
Porcelain_pottery_marks_old_books_German_porcelain_Meissen_China_online.jpg
 

All books on this data DVD are in easy readable Adobe Acrobat reader .PDF format and zoomable.

The "Precious metals" book collection gives you answers on almost everything that was known about precious metals in the 19th and early 20th century:

  • Standard marks, duty marks, tax marks, date marks, plate workers' marks, spoon marks, makers' marks, assay marks, finenes marks
  • Various standards of gold and silver
  • Art work in silver and gold: Standing cups, dram cups, two-handled cups, beakers, tankards, flagons, mugs, teapots, chocolate pots, coffee pots, spoons, forks, candlesticks, porringers, sconces, candle brackets, snuff boxes, tobacco boxes, sugar boxes, bowls, sauce boats, jewish synagogue silver, church silver, etc
  • History of precious metals gold, silver, platinum
  • Assaying of silver, gold
  • Goldsmith & silversmith makers' marks
  • Celebrated European Coldsmiths
  • Old English silver and plate
  • Oriental silverwork - Malay, Japanese, Chinese
  • History of English goldsmiths
  • Church (plate) silver
  • Alloys of gold and silver
  • The hallmarking of jewellery
  • Assay towns of the United Kingdom
  • Manufacturers
  • Hallmarks for jewellery
  • Historic silver and gold objects
  • Plate, Pewter, Brittanica silver
  • And much more....

The "Pottery and Porcelain" antique book collection gives you answers on almost everything that was known about porcelain and pottery arts in the 19th and early 20th century.

  • Terms used by dealers and collectors with their meanings.
  • The history of pottery from the earliest times.
  • Ancient pottery, Mediaeval and Renanaissance, Italian Majolica, French Porcelain and pottery,
  • German stoneware, Dutch pottery, Staffordshire pottery,
  • Oriental and European pottery,
  • History of important porcelain and pottery factories.
  • The difference between pottery and porcelain.
  • Notes and descriptions of various counterfeit and misleading marks.

This DVD also contains thousands of pottery and porcelain marks, makers' marks, factory marks.

 

The "Jewellery" antique book collection contains out-of-print books from the 19th and early 20th century:

  • The magic of jewels and charms.
  • How to make jewelry - practical instructions from a practical manufacturing jeweler.
  • Notes on some of the antique and renaissance Gems and Jewels in her majesty collection at windsor castle
  • Precious Stones - a book of reference for jewellers.
  • 20th Century Catalogue of Supplies for Watchmakers Jewelers and kindred trades
  • An encyclopedia for the Horologist, Jeweler, Gold and Silversmith
  • Diamonds - Precious stones for jewellers and gem-loving public
  • A Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls in which their importance is considered and plain rules are exhibited for ascertaining the value of both; and the true method of manufacturing diamonds.
  • Treatise on gems in reference to their practical and scientific value - A useful guide for the jeweller, lapidary, artist, amateur, mineralogist, and chemist, accomanied by a description of the most interesting American gems, and ornamental and architectural materials.
  • Catalogue of the jewellery Greek, Etruscan and Roman in the departments of Antiquities British Museum
  • Catalogue of the mediaval, ivories, enamels, jewellery, gems and mscellaneous objects bequeathed to the museum by Frank McClean
  • Catalogue of the valuable collection of Old English and Foreign Silver and Silver-gilt plate, Jewels, Bijouterie and Object of Vertu, Old Italian and French Bronzes, Majoliea, Limoges, Enamels,C collection of Venetian and German Glass Old Swiss Stained Glass, ox-Wood Carvings, and a variety of other objects of Art chiefly of the 16th and 17th Centuries.
  • Chats on old jewellery and trinkets
  • English Jewellery
  • The Jeweler's handbook containing practical methodes for galvanizing, electro plating and coloring with gold, silver and copper on all kinds of metals.
  • Jewellers' silversmiths' and kindred traders' accounts for manufacturing jewellers, wholesale jewellers, retail jewellers, diamond merchants, silversmiths, electro platers, gilders, watch manufacturers.
  • Jewellery
  • Useful alloys and memoranda for goldsmiths, jewellers, etc - A private handbook
  • The Science of Gems, Jewels, Coins and Medals - Ancient and modern - Watches, Diamonds, Jewellery and Silverware
  • Etc. etc.........

Attention: You need a DVD player on your computer and the program Adobe Acrobat reader to read the PDF files.

 

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