HALLMARKING SYSTEMS

Hallmarking systems

Hallmarking systems

The hallmarking of silver, gold and other precious metals is the oldest form of European consumer protection. Hallmarking is the official marking of silver, gold, platinum and palladium. Historically hallmarks were applied by official assaying offices. Before 1973 there used to be many hallmarking systems, but in 1973 a core group of European nations signed the Vienna Convention on the control of the fineness and the hallmarking of precious metal objects.

Members of the Vienna Convention are: Austria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine.

Assay offices are institutions set up to test the purity of (assay) precious metal items. Upon successful completion of the assay, the assay offices typically stamp a hallmark, punze (German) or poinçon (France) on the precious metal item to certify its metallurgical content. Hallmarking precious metals first appeared in Europe in France, with the Goldsmiths' Statute of 1260 promulgated under Etienne Boileau, Provost of Paris, for King Louis IX.


Hallmarking in the Netherlands

Hallmarking in the Netherlands

Dutch hallmarking history of silver, gold and other precious metals. Dutch marks on silver and gold.

Hallmarking in the United Kingdom

Hallmarking in the United Kingdom

Hallmarking system in the UK.

Hallmarking Portugal

Hallmarking Portugal

Portuguese silver, gold and platinum hallmarks.

Hallmarking in Sweden

Hallmarking in Sweden

Brief history of the unique marking system in Sweden.

Hallmarking system in Finland

Hallmarking system in Finland

Finnish hallmarking system of precious metals.

Hallmarking in Belgium

Belgian Hallmarking system.

Hallmarking in Austria

Austria-Hungary hallmarking system

French hallmarking system

French hallmarking of silver, gold and other precious metals.

Hallmarking in Italy

Brief history of hallmarking in Italy.

Hallmarking in Switserland

Brief history of hallmarking in Switserland.

Hallmarking in Norway

Brief history of Norwegian Hallmarking system.

Hallmarks Denmark

Brief history of Danish assaying system of silver, gold and platinum.