KEURMERK SYSTEMEN

Keurmerk systemen

Keurmerk systemen

The hallmarking of silver, gold and other precious metals is the oldest form of European consumer protection. Hallmarking is the official marking of silver, gold, platinum and palladium. Historically hallmarks were applied by official assaying offices. Before 1973 there used to be many hallmarking systems, but in 1973 a core group of European nations signed the Vienna Convention on the control of the fineness and the hallmarking of precious metal objects.

Members of the Vienna Convention are: Austria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine.

Assay offices are institutions set up to test the purity of (assay) precious metal items. Upon successful completion of the assay, the assay offices typically stamp a hallmark, punze (German) or poinçon (France) on the precious metal item to certify its metallurgical content. Hallmarking precious metals first appeared in Europe in France, with the Goldsmiths' Statute of 1260 promulgated under Etienne Boileau, Provost of Paris, for King Louis IX.


Keurmerken in Nederland

Keurmerken in Nederland

Dutch hallmarking history of silver, gold and other precious metals. Dutch marks on silver and gold.

Keurmerken in Engeland

Keurmerken in Engeland

Hallmarking system in the UK.

Keurmerken in Portugal

Keurmerken in Portugal

Portugese zilver, goud en platinum keurmerken.

Keurmerken in Zweden

Keurmerken in Zweden

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Keurmerken in Finland

Keurmerken in Finland

Finnish hallmarking system of precious metals.

Keurmerken in België

Belgisch keurmerk systeem.

Keurmerken in Oostenrijk

Austria-Hungary hallmarking system

Keurmerken in Frankrijk

Keurmerken van zilver, goud en andere edelmetalen in Frankrijk.

Keurmerken in Italië

Korte geschiedenis van het keurmerken van edelmetalen in Italië.

Keurmerken in Zwitserland

Korte geschiedenis van het keurmerken van zilver en goud in Zwitserland.

Keurmerken in Noorwegen

Korte geschiedenis van het keurmerken van edelmetalen in Noorwegen.

Keurmerken in Denemarken

Korte geschiedenis van het Deense systeem van het keurmerken van zilver, goud en andere edelmetalen.